Used in many applications of the automation industry, permanent-magnet stepper motors are designed without any teeth, such as those which are commonly used in variable reluctance stepper motors. They are constructed with a design that combines a stator with rotors which are made of cylindrical and permanently installed magnets. Additionally, they are electronically commutated. This is done in just the same way as any brushless direct current motor. Permanent-magnet stepper motors are widely used in document-handling products, such as printers, photocopiers and scanners. In industrial applications, they can be seen working in water and gas flow systems as well functioning as drive actuators in the automotive sector. Available for both consumer and industrial use, they are therefore extremely versatile and can cope with a wide range of direct current voltages. Due to their use of permanent magnets, they are able to offer an increase in the level of dynamic torque that might be found in other DC motors. With a fully automated coil assembly, they have step angles which vary in degree according to the particular function they are designed for.